Ltspice Plot Command







Lab activity 1: Add a behavioral voltage source that is an RC high pass filter that has a high frequency Gain on 10 and an f c of 50kHz. The IV characteristics of diodes are very sensitive to temperature. I need this when I am plotting 2 waveforms. meas directive. 2 Schematic window Schematic window is the window where you create schematic, specify simulation, edit command, and. - Find the frequency where the GAIN is 0 dB. This library extends LTspice IV by adding symbols and models that make it easier for students with no previous SPICE experience to get started with LTspice IV. Show the derivation of the transfer function, the schematic, and the BODE plot. LTspice Guide. Normally, one describes a circuit (using the PSpice language) on a text editor. This article details how to use LTspice’s Waveform Viewer. Open a new schematic in LTspice, insert LT3092 symbol by pressing the ‘F2’ function key 2. Whether you’re prototyping simple circuits, designing complex systems, or validating component yield and reliability, OrCAD PSpice technology provides the best, high-performance circuit simulation to analyze and refine your circuits, components, and parameters before committing to layout and fabrication. The Plot line defines the contents of one plot of from one to eight output variables. ltspice related issues & queries in ElectronicsXchanger. step temp T1 T2 DT” or “. When you click the mouse, the power dissipated by Q1 will be plotted as a function of time. All other simulations in this lab will be of the DC sweep type. To plot the integral use. Also plot Bode plots. In the next example, we combine the point plot of the variable points defined above with a plot of sin(3*x). Throughout the course, you will learn about using SPICE through LTspice. The waveform viewer is a function that displays the simulation results executed with LTspice as a graph. Figure 5 LTSpice Schematic for Resistor I-V Plot Next, edit the simulation command and select the “DC sweep” tab and enter the values as shown below in fig. RC Low-pass Filter Design Tool. Note that LTspice changes the name of the output plot to "V(onoise)". Where do the Bode diagram lines comes from?. The plot shows a flat line at 9. If you plot the integral of this function between 0 and 1, you get this: Joglekar dopant drift window function integral In this model the integral of the window function represents the state x , between 0 and 1, and is used to dynamically change a delta R value. LTspice IV: Schematic Editor Gabino Alonso Jan 15th 2013 Unlike many schematic capture programs, LTspice IV schematic editor was written explicitly for running SPICE simulations. It is very easy to set up the circuit, and both open-loop and closed-loop frequency response can be easily performed. TRAN simulation. Plot an I-V curve of a resistor with a resistance value you choose. LTSpice schematic capture tool will only have a control directive if you add it to your schematic with the Edit/Add control directive command. Find all roots using the fsolve command and label the output. Details Below is an example of how to calculate average charge supplied by a switched capacitor circuit as well as an average current flowing in it. If you a UNIX user and you want to run LTSpice on UNIX, you can use "Wine" to run this software. Place this command on the schematic. GS T DSAT DS GS T V V L K W I V V V V V V = + l - = < > 1 2 2 + VDS-+ VGS-ID The design procedure starts finding the main parameters of the technology used, specially K P, VT and lambda. PRINT line and for the plot command in the interactive mode. At the netlist level the Simulation Command is simply a line of text that begins with any of the following Dot Commands: At the schematic level these commands may be entered directly as a SPICE Directive (ctrl-right-click on the text to edit) or may be entered via the drop down menu item: Simulate => Edit Simulation Cmd. You can design your own, but you may find that one has already been created. The LTSpice schematic is shown below. The unit step function can describe sudden changes in current or voltage in a circuit. It is possible to plot I(R5) by simply selecting the resistor. Macintosh OS X and Linux. In LTSpice there will be DC and AC circuit simulation, Transient and AC analysis exercises. Use a pre-drafted test fixture (JIG) Provides a good starting point Used in testing models during development 3. What is the average of. Introduction to the Multisim Interface Multisim 7 Education User Guide 2-3 User Interface 2. ac dec 100 xx xx". (6 points). In words this command tells LTSpice that there is a variable named R that has an initial value of 1 and a final value of 7000 and to evaluate the circuit from 1 to 7000 in increments of 10. (Available only when a layout tab is selected ) Plots everything within the printable area of the specified paper size, with the origin calculated from 0,0 in the layout. For the types of analysis, please see the following article. In this article, I will introduce LTspice XVII's "Commands for drawing schematics". Use the Maple solve command to find roots of the expression. For each simulation there are two corresponding. txt for FFT plot exported. Use The Opamp Model In The (Opamps) Component Folder, And Add In The Spice Directive "lib Opamp. The circuit schematic is setup to perform an ac sweep from 0. Show the derivation of the transfer function, the schematic, and the BODE plot. The ratio of Stop Time: Maximum Timestep determines how many calculations LTspice must make to plot a wave form. This can be done as follows:. Yes, it is possible to integrate a signal in LTSpice. In this section, we will learn about AC signal analysis using LTspice. The green plot is the voltage on the CHA source. LTSpice plot of the output taken at the collector of transistor. transfer function from gain block analysis gives: Vo Vi c b 1 1 1 a f b d b 2. The LTSpice schematic is shown below. Save or print this plot as well. An op amp is a voltage amplifying device. The PLOT line defines the contents of one plot for one to eight output variables from the analysis defined by the PLtype parameter (DC, AC, TRAN, NOISE, or DISTO). LTspice Tutorial: Part 2. Use the program as a general-purpose schematic capture program with an integrated simulator. The appearance of the symbols was made with the thought of uniformity and usability, which makes possible changing the function of the symbol on the fly, while still preserving the general distinct appearance. You don't need to use the command on each simulation run. step directive, and if you simulate now you'll probably see the same output from before. This LTspice tutorial will explain how to modify the circuit and apply some different signals to it. (LTspice). Of course we are getting a very close match between simulated and actual measurements as we would expect in the simple example. It is possible to plot I(R5) by simply selecting the resistor. Calculate VB in the following circuit and then verify your calculation using LTspice. Click “OK” and place the noise analysis command on the schematic. You can use PlotLabel, Labeled, or interactively add text to a plot using Drawing Tools. So, this is a low-pass lter with K = 1 and ! c = 1=RC. Use The LTspice Command "DC Sweep" To Find The Output Voltage As A Function Of The Input. You'll see a little thermometer icon pop up, (as shown below) and when it does, left click the mouse and release ALT. Put the group number, list of the group members with school ID numbers and a group photo with names marked. Most of the time simulating a trim-pot as a resistor is fine. A DC sweep tells LTSpice to sweep a voltage or current source from one value to another in the given increment. MEAS command on the circuit. Google for LTSpice. To add a plot to the plot pane, click on the other wire while pressing the Ctrl key. Suppose, there is the following switched capacitor circuit. The sum is the mean of the relative difference of points, thus relative to one. As shown in the above icons (set as an “Extra large icons”), thumbnails are displayed, making it easy to find the file. These functions can be used only in a. Figure 5 LTSpice Schematic for Resistor I-V Plot Next, edit the simulation command and select the “DC sweep” tab and enter the values as shown below in fig. It is written such that no prior Multisim knowledge is required. This article explains how to generate and refine a Nyquist plot in LTspice and how to incorporate this plot into your AC analysis. PLOT DC V(4) V(5) V(1) Notes. This is often used to plot transistor characteristics, such as the Drain current ids versus the Drain-source voltage (Vds) for different gate voltages (Vgs). (3 points) 3. In words this command tells LTSpice that there is a variable named R that has an initial value of 1 and a final value of 7000 and to evaluate the circuit from 1 to 7000 in increments of 10. Sum – Slope. If you have good command using above mentioned softwares then bid only. You need to set up the plots yourself. But let’s take a lesson from another LTspice blog, "Plotting a Parameter Against Something Other Than Time (e. option command that changes it to another setting. In the previous four articles, we covered quite a bit of information related to the characteristics and applications of Nyquist plots. It is exceedingly easy to simulate dynamic systems in Simulink, which is a combination of a powerful GUI and various time-domain solvers that make sure all dynamics of modeled systems are captured carefully. There are lots of SPICE simulators out there and LTSpice is my favorite. asc file (in the zip file) can be used to test the modules. This is the total of all the. Simulation Command. Use the Maple fsolve command to find roots of the expression. Compare the resulting Bode plot to the circuit Bode plot. raw file with all the data, and then the gui takes over and you plot the stuff you want. Where do the Bode diagram lines comes from?. Introduction to Operational Amplifiers. Parameters enclosed by braces { } are required, while, those in brackets [ ] are optional. 6BQ5 Spice Model Testing The LTSpice model was developed using the Koren tube equations for a pentode and the parameters were fitted to the equations using the curve fit function in Scipy library. net/images/2019/10/28/612ae75b816099d6772c9b9306d13633. Although we can compute and plot it, the large-signal. It does not follow that QucsStudio and LTspice were the most accurate simulators. ECE 321 Lab 1: Further Adventures with LTSpice In this lab you will review LTSpice simulation of op amp and dependent source circuits and be introduced to some of the semiconductor devices you will be learning about in ECE 321. The last value is critical to the FFT plot and I'll show you why later on. You don't need to use the command on each simulation run. Second, from the LT3748 product page, download the LT3748 Demo Circuit – Automotive Isolated Flyback Controller. TRAN" command. So we have learned how to enter a schematic in LTspice ®. Select Plot data with thick lines. Print out the simulation results to turn in. STEP Commands to Calculate Efficiency. – user405561 Feb 23 '17 at 17:11 Hmmm for what I know,. PLTYPE is the type of analysis (DC, AC, TRAN, NOISE, or DISTO) for which the specified outputs are desired. Use the fplot command to plot the function f (x) = 5 (e-0. Click on the transfer function in the table below to jump to that example. 0 You can nest the DC sweep command. You can guess the next step. In LTSpice you can see how your low pass filter responds to different frequencies using Bode Plots, by default the magnitude i. Transient. The list is similar to those of the BI and BV arbitrary sources , but with a few differences. LTSpice plot of the output taken at the emitter of the transistor. • To plot current, left-click on the body of the component. Right-click on “V(vout)” in the plot window and change the text in the dialog box to “V(vout)/Vi”. ) Wire: Press F3 or the wire button (pencil and blue line). Attach the plot. 2 Benefits of Using LTspice IVBenefits of Using LTspice IV Stable SPICE circuit simulation with Unlimited number of nodes Outperforms pay-for options Unlimited number of nodes Schematic/symbol editor Waveform viewer LTspice is also a great schematic capture Library of passive devices Fast simulation of switching mode power supplies (SMPS) Steady state detectionSteady state detection Turn on transient Step response Over 1100 macromodels of Linear Technology products 500+ SMPSp p Efficiency. to plot derivative of current with time in transient analysis. Now that the variable has been defined, a DC operating point simulation is used to evaluate the circuit. I have not yet figured out the issue with the negative binomial regression and plot, but I think this will suffice for my purposes. Verify your design using LTspice transient simulation turn in the plot. Figure 5 LTSpice Schematic for Resistor I-V Plot Next, edit the simulation command and select the “DC sweep” tab and enter the values as shown below in fig. Click "OK" and place the noise analysis command on the schematic. % • Make liberal use of the debugger and the capability to perform commands in the Command Window and see workspace variables DURING debugging to explore what your code is doing. Filter Pages and LTspice Goodies on LTwiki These blocks make use of LTspice's builtin mathematical functions, plus a few others. – user405561 Feb 23 '17 at 17:11 Hmmm for what I know,. Use this utility to calculate the Transfer Function for filters at a given frequency or values of R and C. i Superimpose the distortion current component idistortion = is - is1 on the above plot. Right click on the schematic and edit the simulation command to the following. Latihan mengawali belajar LTspice Di post sebelumnya sudah cukup lengkap saya cantumkan sumber-sumber belajar untuk dapat mulai mempergunakan software simulator rangkaian elektronik LTspice. pptx - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (. Press "Run". LTSpice: Plotting a Parameter Against Something Other Than Time (e. 01 rad/s to 100 krad/s. Your time step should be 1/10th or 1/100th of your stop time. The circuit is shown in FIG 1. LTspice always defaults the start time to zero seconds and going until it reaches the user defined final time. This LTspice Tutorial digs deeper into circuit analysis with LTspice ®. Find all roots using the fsolve command and label the output. In this case, we want to plot the V(out) versus simulation run index. LTspice Guide. A DC sweep tells LTSpice to sweep a voltage or current source from one value to another in the given increment. that LTspice/SwitcherCAD III is their main simulation/schematic capture tool. This is the total of all the. 2 Benefits of Using LTspice IVBenefits of Using LTspice IV Stable SPICE circuit simulation with Unlimited number of nodes Outperforms pay-for options Unlimited number of nodes Schematic/symbol editor Waveform viewer LTspice is also a great schematic capture Library of passive devices Fast simulation of switching mode power supplies (SMPS) Steady state detectionSteady state detection Turn on transient Step response Over 1100 macromodels of Linear Technology products 500+ SMPSp p Efficiency. Let us plot the simple function y = x for the range of values for x from 0 to 100, with an increment of 5. The blue trace is the simulated voltage on the capacitor, node CHB, which is mostly behind the red voltage plot of the CHB-Meas source. You can design your own, but you may find that one has already been created. Simulation Command. The remaining demonstration for this example is to have PROBE plot the phase shift of the low-pass filter as a function of frequency. This is often used to plot transistor characteristics, such as the Drain current ids versus the Drain-source voltage (Vds) for different gate voltages (Vgs). Its redundant information. Use the Maple fsolve command to find roots of the expression. ALSO find the transfer function of your circuit. Loop runs for all index values. LTspice is mainly used in windo ws operating system although it can be installed in linux space using wine tool. Practical step functions occur daily, like each time you turn mobile devices, stereos, and lights on and off. While it is very easy once you know how to do it, there are a couple pitfalls that nearly caused me to go crazy and rip my hair out in the past. Here is where the most important simulation directives are created for placement on the schematic. The MATLAB command pzmap will plot the poles (and zeros) of a given transfer function as shown below. The plot does will say the time_ns object not found do I need to move the Renderplot lower in the code because R is a line by line program? I apologize if I am not wording this correctly I am self taught and I have only been doing this for about 4 weeks. • You do not need to name the wires to obtain currents alone. First, download the LTSpice application. ) --- For the red Bode plot, this happens at about 5 (rad/sec) [marked with a red 'o' in the upper plot]. Modeling an electric guitar with LTSpice. It is exceedingly easy to simulate dynamic systems in Simulink, which is a combination of a powerful GUI and various time-domain solvers that make sure all dynamics of modeled systems are captured carefully. The parameters c and r are again the power function coef-ficients. The Fourier transform is the mathematical tool used to make this conversion. Write an equation for Vout as a function of Vin in the following circuits. Components Required –Resistors –Capacitors –Function Generator –Multimeter –Oscilloscope 2. txt for FFT plot exported. LTSpice is a simulation tool designed by Liner Technology. Such a circuit may comprise of JFETs, bipolar and MOS transistors, passive elements like R, L, or C, diodes, transmission lines and other devices, all interconnected in a netlist. asc Since V(Vout) is the voltage across the capacitor C1 , then the instantaneous power of C1 is V(Vout)*I(C1 ) as shown in light blue of the top plot. Introduction to the Multisim Interface Multisim 7 Education User Guide 2-3 User Interface 2. It'll need to be of the form H = s / (tau * s + 1), because SPICE doesn't like nekkid. Once run the simulation you should plot the signals at the output of the opamp and the signal at its non-inverting input. Since a simulation can generate many megabytes of data in a few minutes, free. Yes, it is possible to integrate a signal in LTSpice. I just never use the. LTspice: Using. This is the total of all the. Then the syntax is the same as. User-Defined Functions The menu command Plot Settings=>Edit Plot Defs File allows you to enter your own function definitions and parameter definitions for use in the waveform viewer. The gain margin (GM) is the factor by which the gain is less than the neutral stability value. Mode of Operation Overview LTspice IV has two basic modes of driving the simulator: 1. I can't distinguish the color in when I print it B&W. This is a quick tutorial for teaching students of ELEC 2210 how to use Multisim for bipolar transistor circuit simulation. every time when i run the simulation i see on x axis on time base. Open the folder where the LTspice file is saved, and set the icon type to “Medium icons or more” size from “View”. LTspice always defaults the start time to zero seconds and going until it reaches the user defined final time. Function Generator Video. This plots the large-signal gain of the circuit shown on the right. The plot shows a flat line at 9. The syntax for the OVI is identical to that for the. We first. LTSpice will simulate the circuit for the range of frequencies that you entered. In this article, I will introduce LTspice XVII's "Commands for drawing schematics". First, download the LTSpice application. printout a Bode magnitude plot for use in lab. Simon Bramble - Field Applications Engineer Sometimes the frequency response of a circuit is more important than looking at the individual voltages or currents at a specific part of the schematic. No more using LTSpice. This library extends LTspice IV by adding symbols and models that make it easier for students with no previous SPICE experience to get started with LTspice IV. Use this utility to calculate the Transfer Function for filters at a given frequency or values of R and C. Qucs is a multi-lingual program. TRAN simulation. One neat feature of LTspice is the ability to plot the stepped. Gain Margin. This change is persistent until it executes another. Start a new schematic and create the circuit shown below. This blog will guide you through the steps of doing AC analysis using LTspice software. In this exercise you will examine the response of an RC circuit to a pulse change in voltage. LTSPICE control panel. Plot Manually Entered Functions - Next LTspice Tip --> How to Plot an Integral in the LTspice WaveForm Viewer This is something of a workaround solution since as far as I could determine there is no integration function directly available in the LTspice WaveForm Viewer. You can guess the next step. Before you can begin simulating a netlist, ngspice must know where the netlist files are. Let's get LTSpice up and running with a working model, run a simulation and view the output. LTspice waveform viewer plot settings are stored as an ASCII text file with a filename extension of "plt". LTSpice and Lab Orientation - Instruments and Measurements In this experiment, the student will become familiar with basic circuit implementation in LTSpice and with using the lab equipment to be utilized throughout this course. In LTSpice you can see how your low pass filter responds to different frequencies using Bode Plots, by default the magnitude i. To plot the data, right-click the error log and select the Plot step’ed. Open a new schematic in LTspice, insert LT3092 symbol by pressing the 'F2' function key 2. Introduction to Bode Plot • 2 plots – both have logarithm of frequency on x-axis o y-axis magnitude of transfer function, H(s), in dB o y-axis phase angle The plot can be used to interpret how the input affects the output in both magnitude and phase over frequency. Plot Vout if Vin varies from -1 to 1 V in each circuit. Show the derivation of the transfer function, the schematic, and the BODE plot. I want to find out is there any way to set up frequency sweep in LTSpice and plot the frequency response on a graph? I have look and I cannot find it. LTSpice schematic capture tool will only have a control directive if you add it to your schematic with the Edit/Add control directive command. For the types of analysis, please see the following article. DC Operating Point ðlThis is a simple, but incredibly useful analysis. In this case, we want to plot the V(out) versus simulation run index. NOTE: Use LTspice or MATLAB® to produce the Bode plots. Limiter (Clipper): The purpose of a limiter (or clipper) is to shape an input waveform and clip or cut off its top half, bottom half or both halves together. Add a component Add a resistor – Press “R” or click the resistor button to insert a resistor. An Example Circuit In LTspice IV AC analysis can be used to determine complex node voltages and device currents as a function of frequency. We're not quite ready to perform this simulation, though - LTSpice still doesn't know where to apply the. LTspice Tutorial: Part 3. Phase angle is also plotted against same log frequency. SPICE ‘Quick’ Reference Sheet THE GENERAL ANATOMY OF A SPICE DECK SPECIFYING CIRCUIT TOPOLOGY: DATA STATEMENTS Basic Components Resistors Capacitors and Inductors Voltage and Current Sources Independent DC Sources Independent AC Sources Transient Sources Sinusoidal Sources Piecewise Linear Source (PWL) Pulse Dependent Sources Semiconductor. 1 W will die in a puff of smoke. You would then use the LTSpice "step" command. All the other functions are specified in Help->LTSPICE->Circuit Elements->B. The function sdt() or the equivalent idt() are for integration and ddt() is for the derivative. iC idiode iC iC idiode 5. Normally stop time should be long enough for transient to pass; it will depend on your circuit (10 mS is good enough for our example). • To plot current, left-click on the body of the component. First, download the LTSpice application. net/images/2019/10/28/612ae75b816099d6772c9b9306d13633. LTSPICE control panel. LTspice always defaults the start time to zero seconds and going until it reaches the user defined final time. Go to the edit simulation cmd window. Print a copy of the graph open Tools tab – Control Panel - Waveforms – check box Plot data with thick lines or for newer LTspice change Data Trace Width to 4. In the previous four articles, we covered quite a bit of information related to the characteristics and applications of Nyquist plots. LTspice does not come with a standard potentiometer so we will build one. Find and record the maximum value of the voltage over the resistor. Simulation support in KiCad 5 has been reworked to such an extent that a lot of the following doesn't work. As you can see from the simulation, I have the. step param C 10pF 22pF 2pF yields the bode plot in the left pane. SPICE ‘Quick’ Reference Sheet THE GENERAL ANATOMY OF A SPICE DECK SPECIFYING CIRCUIT TOPOLOGY: DATA STATEMENTS Basic Components Resistors Capacitors and Inductors Voltage and Current Sources Independent DC Sources Independent AC Sources Transient Sources Sinusoidal Sources Piecewise Linear Source (PWL) Pulse Dependent Sources Semiconductor. Capture the plot and paste it as Figure 4 in the report torm below. Define the function, y = f(x) Call the plot command, as plot(x, y) Following example would demonstrate the concept. I just never use the. that LTspice/SwitcherCAD III is their main simulation/schematic capture tool. It taught me to design an LNA that performed at its theoretical limits on the first try. (This means the output and input amplitudes (magnitudes) are identical at this particular frequency; on the Bode plot, it's where the transfer function crosses 0 dB on the upper [magnitude] plot. To calculate the charge we integrate the actual current over one period. asc file (in the zip file) can be used to test the modules. The order of the arguments doesn't matter because it really does just take the intermediate value of the three. The syntax for the OVI is identical to that for the. NET directive in LTSpice >> because of the problem you brought up. MEAS[URE] command, but I don't know how to get results from it. The right pane displays the zoomed peak area. Pspice is a version of the original Simulation program with integrated circuit Emphasis program that have been adapted for PC. The plot shows a flat line at 9. Resistance) 1. LTspice Handout. LTSpice is a simulation tool designed by Liner Technology. exe) not found, How do I use LTspiceXVII? I have installed updates from github with some success. Next, working about this operating point, LTspice calculates linearized small signal models for all nonlinear devices. ECE 321 Lab 1: Further Adventures with LTSpice In this lab you will review LTSpice simulation of op amp and dependent source circuits and be introduced to some of the semiconductor devices you will be learning about in ECE 321. Substitute each root back into the function to show that the answer is zero. It's worth spending some time reading up on the use of LTSpice to learn a bit more about how to use it. This "flat" plot is how the LTSpice models will portray the circuit. Normally stop time should be long enough for transient to pass; it will depend on your circuit (10 mS is good enough for our example). Searching the LTspice help for "Viewer Overview" is a good place to start if more information is desired, but below are the basics for how to plot a function from scratch or how to edit an existing trace expression. otherwise use the wire function. net/images/2019/10/28/612ae75b816099d6772c9b9306d13633. So first, let's look at what the pulse width modulator is doing. Depending on the argument value, heaviside returns one of these values: 0, 1, or 1/2. Parameters enclosed by braces { } are required, while, those in brackets [ ] are optional. Filter Pages and LTspice Goodies on LTwiki These blocks make use of LTspice's builtin mathematical functions, plus a few others. Implementation done by @acidbourbon. This article explains how to generate and refine a Nyquist plot in LTspice and how to incorporate this plot into your AC analysis. Computational: The modules in this ZIP file make up a minimal set to converrt LTspice into an analog computer. parameters of the ". plt file name before running the simulation. Pulse Response of an RC Circuit. tran command to see how long it takes your circuit to come to steady state and then edit the. Use a pre-drafted test fixture (JIG) Provides a good starting point Used in testing models during development 3. LTSpice plot of the output taken at the collector of transistor. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Electronic Circuit Simulator LTspice XVII "Simulation". I can't distinguish the color in when I print it B&W. Analyze system performance with tools such as step response, pole-zero maps, and Bode plots. In a previous posting I discussed using Linear Technology's SPICE program (LTSpice IV) to perform Monte Carlo and Worst Case circuit analysis. For example V (n001) or I (R1) or Ib (Q1). 3 Menus and Commands” on page 2-13. Now right-click and select “Run” to run your simulation. step directive. A power function is used to model the voltage depen-dent capacities Cgd and Cds. Let’s get LTSpice up and running with a working model, run a simulation and view the output. — @yigitdemirag “ In our product development cycle, we've used CircuitLab in more places than you might expect: optimizing our analog front-end, RF matching network analysis, improving our power supply robustness, and designing and documenting test and production fixtures. > > I don't even plot Zin. So first, let's look at what the pulse width modulator is doing.